Endometriosis - Symptoms and Treatment

Endometriosis is an ailment in which the inner lining of the uterus (endometrium) grows outside the uterus, resulting in women having painful periods. The endometrium grows every month starting from the completion of periods and then sheds during the next menstrual cycle. With no way to exit the body, the blood gets trapped inside these tissues, leading to cyst formation within the ovaries. Since it contains chocolate coloured endometriotic fluid, they are called chocolate cysts or Ovarian endometriomas. It leads to the formation of adenomyomas, where the tissues that usually line the uterus grows into the muscular wall of the uterus.

Common Symptoms

Menstrual Cramps (Dysmenorrhea)

Causes cramps before the beginning of periods and extend several days into a menstrual period.

Painful Intercourse (Dyspareunia)

Painful sexual intercourse can be felt externally on the vulva or internally in the vagina, uterus or pelvis.

Chronic Pelvic Pain

Endometriosis causes pain in the pelvic bones due to the infections.

Painful bowel movements

Women affected by endometriosis deal with painful bowel movements that may worsen around the time of menstruation.

Painful urination

Endometriosis also causes blood in the urine and pain during urinating.

Heavy menstrual bleeding

Women with Endometriosis tend to have heavier menstrual bleeding and more extended menstruation period.


Women affected with Endometriosis are at higher risk of facing infertility problems, with nearly 30% to 50% of women experiencing infertility. It causes damage to normal ovarian tissue leading to low ovarian reserve. Hence it is suggested to take IVF early and not delay having children early because the condition may worsen with time.

Treatment of Endometriosis

Treatment for Endometriosis varies with respect to young women and childbearing women.

Young women

Use painkillers to reduce pain caused due to Endometriosis.

Hormone therapies are sometimes effective in controlling estrogen production and reducing or eliminating the pain of Endometriosis.

Child-bearing Women

Counsel the couple to undergo basic investigations and go for treatment options as early as possible to reduce the possibility of infertility.

Women affected with severe Endometriosis can undergo Laparoscopy surgery to treat it. The laparoscope is fitted with surgical instruments that will be used to remove the endometriosis implants and lesions.

Women with low ovarian reserve affected by moderate and severe Endometriosis are advised to go for IVF (Invitro Fertilisation).